Melanoma of the lower genital tract: Prognostic factors and treatment modalities

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Gynecologic Oncology, Volume 150, Issue 1
Author(s): Angiolo Gadducci, Silvestro Carinelli, Maria Elena Guerrieri, Giovanni Damiano Aletti
Primary melanomas originating from the gynecological tract are rare and aggressive cancers. The vulva is the most frequent site (70%), followed by vagina and more rarely by cervix. The clinical outcome of patients with female genital tract melanoma is very poor, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 37–50% for vulvar, 13–32% for vaginal, and approximately 10% for cervical melanoma. In this systematic review, we analyzed the pathogenesis and the different factors influencing the prognosis of melanomas of the lower genital tract, with particular emphasis on biologic variables that may influence new therapeutic approaches. We evaluated the different treatment modalities described in the literature, in order to offer a possible algorithm that may help the clinicians in diagnosing and treating patients with these uncommon malignancies.