Extrauterine adenomyoma: a review of the literature

Publication date: September 2018
Source:European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 228
Author(s): P.G. Paul, Gunjan Gulati, Hemant Shintre, Sumina Mannur, George Paul, Santwan Mehta
Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. The focal and localized form of adenomyosis is known as adenomyoma. It is rarely located outside the uterus which is termed as extrauterine adenomyoma. We describe three cases of extrauterine adenomyomas which were located in pararectal space, round ligament and ovary. These cases were treated by laparoscopic excision and diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. A review of the literature identified 34 cases of extrauterine adenomyomas. The most common locations were pararectal space, ovary and broad ligament. Other pelvic locations included the round ligament, paraovarian, parametrial and pelvic wall. Extrapelvic adenomyomas were located in the liver, upper abdomen, inguinal scar, appendix and small bowel mesentery. The abdominopelvic pain was the most common clinical presentation of extrauterine adenomyoma. Various imaging modalities were used to identify extrauterine masses, but a definitive diagnosis could not be made preoperatively in any of the cases. Although rare, a possible diagnosis of adenomyoma must be contemplated while dealing with extrauterine masses. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. Since malignancy has been reported in extrauterine adenomyomas, this possibility must be kept in mind while offering treatment.