Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Death After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From 32 882 Patients Enrolled in 21 Randomized Trials [Coronary Interventions]


Despite advances in technology and technique, a substantial proportion of patients still die within several years after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The relative rates of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death after PCI remain uncertain.

Methods and Results:

We pooled individual patient-level data from 21 randomized clinical trials of PCI performed in 32 882 patients. All studies had independent adjudication of clinical events. We calculated the relative ratio of cardiovascular to noncardiovascular death in each trial up to 5 years and identified predictors of all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular death. At the end of the follow-up period, 1980 patients had died (Kaplan-Meier estimated mortality rate, 9.19%). The rates of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality at 5 years were 4.23% (945) and 5.17% (1035), respectively. The rate of cardiovascular death was higher than noncardiovascular death in the first 30 days after PCI (relative ratio, 6.99; 95% confidence interval, 3.16–15.42; P<0.001), similar between 30 days and 1 year, and lower between 1 and 5 years (relative ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.84; P=0.0005). Any adverse cardiac event (definite stent thrombosis, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) preceded cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in 292 (30.9%) and 151 (14.6%) patients, respectively. In a multivariable model with adverse events entered as time-adjusted covariates, myocardial infarction and definite ST were associated with early and late all-cause and cardiovascular mortality but not noncardiovascular mortality.


In this large-scale study of patients undergoing PCI, the 5-year rates of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality were similar, but their relative timing was different.