Effect of Vitamin D on Blood Pressure in Diabetes Patients

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) could experience improved systolic blood pressure (SBP)—but not diastolic blood pressure (DBP)—according to a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Eligible studies for inclusion were RCTs comparing consumption of vitamin D versus placebo in T2D patients. A total of 26 studies with 1,789 T2D patients were included. Vitamin D was shown to significantly reduce SBP −0.97 mm Hg, 95 % CI: −1.94, −0.001, P = 0.050), but this association was not observed in DBP (−0.10 mm Hg, 95 % CI: −0.22, 0.02, P = 0.087). In subgroup analyses, significant SBP reduction was observed in patients consuming vitamin D with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L, with baseline SBP < 140 mm Hg, and who received vitamin D without Ca co-supplementation. Vitamin D doses and whether it was taken as a supplement or added to food did not impact blood pressure outcomes.