Air Pollutants and T2D: The Latest Data

Recent data have identified a correlation between air pollutants and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, researchers conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the latest studies pertaining to this topic and to determine whether T2D patients have a greater likelihood of being affected by air pollutants. The PubMed and Web of Science Databases were reviewed per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-analysis guidelines. The strength of relationships between air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm [PM2.5], particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm [PM10] and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and T2D. A total of 716 articles were identified, of which 86 were included in the final review and meta-analysis. In meta-analyses, there was a significant correlation between PM2.5 and T2D incidence (11 studies; HR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17 per 10 μg/m3 increment; I2=74.4%) and prevalence (11 studies; OR=1.08; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.12 per 10 μg/m3 increment; I2=84.3%), PM10 and T2D prevalence (6 studies; OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.17 per 10 μg/m3 increment; I2=89.5%) and incidence (6 studies; HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.22 per μg/m3 increment; I2=70.6%), and NO2 and T2D prevalence (11 studies; OR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.11 per 10 μg/m3 increment; I2 =91.1%). Most studies evaluating glucose-homeostasis markers presented greater risks with increased levels of air pollutants, but the data could not be included in the meta-analysis because they were too heterogenous. The researchers suggested that in general, T2D patients may be more vulnerable to PM.