Viral Macrodomains: Unique Mediators of Viral Replication and Pathogenesis

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 7
Author(s): Anthony R. Fehr, Gytis Jankevicius, Ivan Ahel, Stanley Perlman
Viruses from the Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae families ​all contain genes that encode a conserved protein domain, called a macrodomain; however, the role of this domain during infection has remained enigmatic. The recent discovery that mammalian macrodomain proteins enzymatically remove ADP-ribose, a common post-translation modification, from proteins has led to an outburst of studies describing both the enzymatic activity and function of viral macrodomains. These new studies have defined these domains as de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes, which indicates that these viruses have evolved to counteract antiviral ADP-ribosylation, likely mediated by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). Here, we comprehensively review this rapidly expanding field, describing the structures and enzymatic activities of viral macrodomains, and discussing their roles in viral replication and pathogenesis.