Tombusvirus RNA replication depends on the TOR pathway in yeast and plants

Publication date: June 2018
Source:Virology, Volume 519
Author(s): Jun-ichi Inaba, Peter D. Nagy
Similar to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) utilizes metabolites, lipids, membranes, and co-opted host factors during replication. The coordination of cell metabolism and growth with environmental cues is performed by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in eukaryotic cells. In this paper, we find that TBSV replication partially inhibits TOR activity, likely due to recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the viral replication compartment, which results in reduced ATP levels in the cytosol. Complete inhibition of TOR activity with rapamycin in yeast or AZD8055 inhibitor in plants reduces tombusvirus replication. We find that high glucose concentration, which stimulates TOR activity, enhanced tombusvirus replication in yeast. Depletion of yeast Sch9 or plant S6K1 kinase, a downstream effector of TOR, also inhibited tombusvirus replication in yeast and plant or the assembly of the viral replicase in vitro. Altogether, the TOR pathway is crucial for TBSV to replicate efficiently in hosts.