Immunomodulatory Nonstructural Proteins of Influenza A Viruses

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 7
Author(s): Carolin Klemm, Yvonne Boergeling, Stephan Ludwig, Christina Ehrhardt
Influenza epidemics and pandemics still represent a severe public health threat and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As intracellular parasites, influenza viruses are strongly dependent on the host cell machinery. To ensure efficient production of progeny viruses, viral proteins extensively interfere with cellular signalling pathways to inhibit antiviral responses or to activate virus-supportive functions. Here, we review various functions of the influenza virus nonstructural proteins NS1, PB1-F2, and PA-X in infected cells and how post-transcriptional modifications of these proteins affect the viral life cycle. Furthermore, we discuss newly discovered interactions between these proteins and the antiviral interferon response.