Adenosine causes read-through into the late region of the HPV16 genome in a guanosine-dependent manner

Publication date: August 2018
Source:Virology, Volume 521
Author(s): Haoran Yu, Chengjun Wu, Kersti Nilsson, Naoko Kajitani, Stefan Schwartz
Adenosine plays an important role in cell death and differentiation as well as in tumorigenesis and the intra- and extra-cellular levels range from nanomolar to millimolar levels under various physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Here we report that adenosine can activate HPV16 late gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but only in the presence of guanosine. This activation occurred within hours after addition of the nucleosides and was primarily dependent on the ENT1 nucleoside transporter protein. Induction of HPV16 late gene expression was mainly the result of increased read-through at the early HPV16 polyadenylation signal into the late region of the HPV16 genome, thereby producing HPV16 late L2 mRNAs. The effect of guanosine and adenosine on HPV16 late gene expression was mediated by the increased binding to HPV16 mRNAs and nuclear export of the cellular HuR protein. Our results demonstrate that nucleosides can affect HPV16 gene expression.