Adult classical homocystinuria requiring parenteral nutrition: Pitfalls and management

Publication date: August 2018
Source:Clinical Nutrition, Volume 37, Issue 4
Author(s): Christel Tran, Luisa Bonafé, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Julie Rieger, Mette M. Berger
BackgroundHomocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Treatment by the enteral route aims at reducing homocysteine levels by using vitamin B6, possibly methionine-restricted diet, betaine and/or folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Currently no nutritional guidelines exist regarding parenteral nutrition (PN) under acute conditions.MethodsExhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the pathogenesis and nutritional intervention of adult classical homocystinuria requiring PN. Description of an illustrative case of an adult female with CBS deficiency and intestinal perforation, who required total PN due to contraindication to enteral nutrition.ResultsNutritional management of decompensated classical homocystinuria is complex and currently no recommendation exists regarding PN composition. Amino acid profile and monitoring of total homocysteine concentration are the main tools enabling a precise assessment of the severity of metabolic alterations. In case of contraindication to enteral nutrition, compounded PN will be required, as described in this paper, to ensure adequate low amounts of methionine and others essential amino acids and avoid potentially fatal toxic hypermethioninemia.ConclusionsBy reviewing the literature and reporting successful nutritional management of a decompensated CBS deficiency using tailored PN with limited methionine intake and n-3 PUFA addition, we would like to underscore the fact that standard PN solutions are not adapted for CBS deficient critical ill patients: new solutions are required. High methionine levels (>800 μmol/L) being potentially neurotoxic, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of acute nutritional therapy.