Oncology News Round-Up: Environmental Causes of MDS, and More

Each week on DocWire News, editors bring you the latest in oncology news and cancer research. In case you missed it, here are this week’s top headlines:

Keep reading for the breakdown on these top stories.

RELATED: Last Week’s Round-Up: Cancer in Solid Organ Recipients

Environmental and Occupational Determinants of MDS

Researchers conducted a case-control study to assess environmental and occupational determinants as risk factors of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in a Pakistani population. The results were published in Cancer Reports.

In this case-control study, researchers analyzed 600 participants, including 150 de novo MDS cases and 450 age and gender-matched controls. They collated disease characteristics, sociodemographics, and exposure to environmental and occupational determinants, assessed via a questionnaire.

The results showed that individuals who were exposed to arsenic or benzene, using a natural source of water, and patients who were smokers were more likely to have MDS. Also, unmarried people were less likely to acquire MDS than married people. The results also showed that uneducated participants were more likely to have MDS than educated participants, and powdered milk drinkers were more likely to have MDS than dairy milk drinkers.

Environmental and Occupational Determinants of MDS

Incidence of Stage I NSCLC at Diagnosis Up in the U.S.

In the United States, more patients are being diagnosed with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and five-year survival for NSCLC has increased, according to a study published online Oct. 21 in JAMA Oncology.

Apar Kishor Ganti, M.D., from VA Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System in Omaha, and colleagues calculated the most recent epidemiologic estimates of NSCLC in the United States using data from the U.S. Cancer Statistics database (2010 to 2017).

The researchers found 1.28 million new NSCLC cases during the study period (53% men; 67% ≥65 years). Overall, there was a decrease in NSCLC incidence from 46.4 per 100,000 in 2010 to 40.9 per 100,000 in 2017 (age <65 years: 15.5 to 13.5 per 100,000; age ≥65 years: 259.9 to 230.0 per 100,000). There was stability in the incidence of stage II, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC, while the incidence of stage IV disease decreased slightly from 21.7 to 19.6 per 100,000. There was an increase in stage I NSCLC incidence from 10.8 to 13.2 per 100,000. More than one-quarter of patients survived five years (26.4%). Among patients with stage IV NSCLC, more of those 65 years of age and older received no treatment (38.3%) compared with those younger than 65 years (22.8%).

Incidence of Stage I NSCLC at Diagnosis Up in the U.S.

Age-Related Disease Risks Up for Younger B-NHL Survivors

Younger B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors have increased relative risks for specific age-related diseases (acute renal failure, pneumonia, and nutritional deficiencies) compared with older survivors relative to their peers in the general population, according to a study published online in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Krista Ocier, PhD, MPH, and colleagues estimated the incidence of age-related disease beside cardiovascular disease among younger versus older B-NHL survivors compared with general population cohorts. Survivors of B-NHL, diagnosed between 1997 and 2015, were matched with up to five cancer-free individuals on sex, birth year, and state of birth; data were included for 2,129 B-NHL survivors and 8,969 matched individuals.

The researchers found that at five or more years after cancer diagnosis, younger B-NHL survivors (<65 years) had higher relative risks for acute renal failure, pneumonia, and nutritional deficiencies compared with older survivors (≥65 years) relative to matched individuals.

Age-Related Disease Risks Up for Younger B-NHL Survivors

GVHD Is Associated with Reduced Antibody Response to COVID-19 Vaccine

A study published in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology found that chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with reduced binding antibody (Ab) responses to the COVID-19 vaccine in patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

For this study, 40 patients who had previously undergone allo-HSCT were compared to data from 40 healthy controls. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood cells was conducted at baseline to identify predictors of Ab response. At 21 days post-vaccination, 20 of 37 patients who were SARS-CoV-2 naïve (54%) had detectable anti-RBD Ab, and in 32 patients (86%) at 49 days. When compared to control subjects, the allo-HSCT cohort had significantly lower anti-RBD levels at days 21, 28, and 49.

The researchers noted that patients with ongoing moderate to severe GVHD also demonstrated lower anti-RBD and NT50 Ab titers at day 49 (P<0.01). Rituximab therapy within the year prior to vaccination was also associated with lower Ab titers (P<0.05). In fact, the authors noted, “compared to healthy adults, allo-HSCT patients without chronic GVHD or rituximab therapy had comparable anti-RBD Ab levels and NT50 Ab titers at day 49.”

GVHD Is Associated with Reduced Antibody Response to COVID-19 Vaccine

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