Diet plays a large role in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and preventing related comorbidities. A study examined the effect of local food environment on diet choices in patients with CKD.
The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study used a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline to ascertain patients’ dietary intake. Between 2003 and 2006, 2,484 patients were recruited from seven study centers. The number of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores per 10,000 population for each geocoded census block group was determined using food outlet data. Correlations were evaluated between measures of food outlet availability and dietary factors.
Male patients who lived in areas with zero or the highest number of outlets were more likely to have the highest caloric intakes; males living in zero outlet areas had the highest levels of sodium and phosphorous consumption. Meanwhile, female patients in zero-outlet areas had the lowest average caloric, sodium, and phosphorous intakes. Low-income females who lived closer to more outlets had higher caloric intakes. Overall, there were no correlations between access to fast-food restaurants and an unhealthy diet score nor access to grocery stores and a healthy diet score.
“Average caloric and nutrient intakes differed by outlet availability; however, there were no strong associations with type of food outlet. This should be considered when developing food-focused public health policies,” the researchers recommended.