This article was originally published here
Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 May 17;151:113102. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113102. Online ahead of print.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to one class of phase 2 detoxification enzymes which are important in metabolism and/or detoxification of various electrophilic endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics. From the available database, we found that GSTM2 gene expression is lower in high stages of bladder urothelial carcinoma than in stage 1 and normal bladder tissue. GSTM2 overexpression retards invasion, migration and tumor sphere formation of bladder cancer cells. Analysis of GSTM2 promoter activity shows that one SP1 site located at – 48 to – 40 bp is important for GSTM2 gene expression in BFTC 905 cells. An SP1 inhibitor, mithramycin A, inhibits GSTM2 promoter activity and protein expression. SP1 overexpression also increases GSTM2 expression in BFTC 905 and 5637 cells. Eight potential phytochemicals were analyzed for GSTM2 promoter activation, and results indicated that baicalein, berberrubine, chalcone, curcumin, resveratrol, and wogonin can increase promoter activity. In endogenous GSTM2 expression, berberrubine and resveratrol activated GSTM2 mRNA and protein expression the most. A DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-deoxycytidine, can decrease GSTM2 gene methylation level and then increase its gene expression; 50 μM berberrubine decreased the GSTM2 gene methylation level, providing a mechanism for activating GSTM2 gene expression. Berberrubine and resveratrol also increased SP1 protein expression as one of the mechanisms for GSTM2 gene expression. In summary, berberrubine and resveratrol activates GSTM2 expression which inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer cells. The GSTM2 expression mechanism is partially via SP1 activation, and the effect of berberrubine is also partly via DNA CpG demethylation.