The inflammatory microenvironment and the urinary microbiome in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer

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Genes Dis. 2020 Oct 13;8(6):781-797. doi: 10.1016/j.gendis.2020.10.002. eCollection 2021 Nov.


Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in various malignancies, including bladder cancer. This hypothesis stems in part from inflammatory cells observed in the urethral microenvironment. Chronic inflammation may drive neoplastic transformation and the progression of bladder cancer by activating a series of inflammatory molecules and signals. Recently, it has been shown that the microbiome also plays an important role in the development and progression of bladder cancer, which can be mediated through the stimulation of chronic inflammation. In effect, the urinary microbiome can play a role in establishing the inflammatory urethral microenvironment that may facilitate the development and progression of bladder cancer. In other words, chronic inflammation caused by the urinary microbiome may promote the initiation and progression of bladder cancer. Here, we provide a detailed and comprehensive account of the link between chronic inflammation, the microbiome and bladder cancer. Finally, we highlight that targeting the urinary microbiome might enable the development of strategies for bladder cancer prevention and personalized treatment.

PMID:34522708 | PMC:PMC8427242 | DOI:10.1016/j.gendis.2020.10.002