This article was originally published here
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15648. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-95157-6.
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only FDA approved first line therapy for patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The purpose of this study is to better understand the role of innate immune pathways involved in BCG immunotherapy against murine bladder tumor. We first characterized the immunological profile induced by the MB49 mouse urothelial carcinoma cell line. MB49 cells were not able to activate an inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL-10 or IFN-β) after the stimulus with different agonists or BCG infection, unlike macrophages. Although MB49 cells are not able to induce an efficient immune response, BCG treatment could activate other cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). We evaluated BCG intratumoral treatment in animals deficient for different innate immune molecules (STING-/-, cGAS-/-, TLR2-/-, TLR3-/-, TLR4-/-, TLR7-/-, TLR9-/-, TLR3/7/9-/-, MyD88-/-, IL-1R-/-, Caspase1/11-/-, Gasdermin-D-/- and IFNAR-/-) using the MB49 subcutaneous mouse model. Only MyD88-/- partially responded to BCG treatment compared to wild type (WT) mice, suggesting a role played by this adaptor molecule. Additionally, BCG intratumoral treatment regulates cellular infiltrate in TME with an increase of inflammatory macrophages, neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes, suggesting an immune response activation that favors tumor remission in WT mice but not in MyD88-/-. The experiments using MB49 cells infected with BCG and co-cultured with macrophages also demonstrated that MyD88 is essential for an efficient immune response. Our data suggests that BCG immunotherapy depends partially on the MyD88-related innate immune pathway.