Long non-coding RNAs as new players in bladder cancer: Lessons from pre-clinical and clinical studies

This article was originally published here

Life Sci. 2021 Sep 11:119948. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119948. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The clinical management of bladder cancer (BC) has become an increasing challenge due to high incidence rate of BC, malignant behavior of cancer cells and drug resistance. The non-coding RNAs are considered as key factors involved in BC progression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules and do not encode proteins. They have more than 200 nucleotides in length and affect gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional phases. The lncRNAs demonstrate abnormal expression in BC cells and tissues. The present aims to identifying lncRNAs with tumor-suppressor and tumor-promoting roles, and evaluating their roles as regulatory of growth and migration. Apoptosis, glycolysis and EMT are tightly regulated by lncRNAs in BC. Response of BC cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin and gemcitabine chemotherapy is modulated by lncRNAs. LncRNAs regulate immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment and affect response of BC cells to immunotherapy. Besides, lncRNAs are able to regulate microRNAs, STAT3, Wnt, PTEN and PI3K/Akt pathways in affecting both proliferation and migration of BC cells. Noteworthy, anti-tumor compounds and genetic tools such as siRNA, shRNA and CRISPR/Cas systems can regulate lncRNA expression in BC. Finally, lncRNAs and exosomal lncRNAs can be considered as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools in BC.

PMID:34520771 | DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119948