Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion and Prognosis of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Analysis of Long-Term Data over 5 Years with Machine-Learning Algorithms

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J Clin Med. 2021 Sep 20;10(18):4263. doi: 10.3390/jcm10184263.


We aim to investigate the significance of intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP) on the prognosis of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after the transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). For newly diagnosed NMIBC, we retrospectively analyzed the association between prognosis and IPP for at least a 5-year follow-up. A degree of IPP over 5 mm in a preoperative CT scan was classified as severe. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival, and the secondary endpoint was progression-free survival. The machine learning (ML) algorithm of a support vector machine was used for predictive model development. Of a total of 122 patients, ultimately, severe IPP was observed in 33 patients (27.0%). IPP correlated positively with age, BPH, recurrence, and prognosis. Severe IPP was significantly higher in the recurrence group and reduced in the recurrence-free survival group (p = 0.038, p = 0.032). Severe IPP independently increased the risk of intravesical recurrence by 2.6 times. The addition of IPP to the known oncological risk factors in the prediction model using the ML algorithm improved the predictability of cancer recurrence by approximately 6%, to 0.803. IPP was analyzed as a potential independent risk factor for NMIBC recurrence and progression after TURBT. This anatomical feature of the prostate could affect the recurrence of bladder tumors.

PMID:34575374 | DOI:10.3390/jcm10184263