This article was originally published here
Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1007/s11033-021-06752-9. Online ahead of print.
Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving concept that has been given the tag “fifth pillar” of cancer therapy while radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery and targeted therapy remain the other four pillars. This involves the stimulation of the immune system to control tumor growth and it specifically targets the neoplastic cells rather than the normal cells. Conventional chemotherapy has many limitations which include drug resistance, recurrence of cancer and severe adverse effects. Immunology has made major treatment breakthroughs for several cancers such as colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia etc. Currently, therapeutic strategies harnessing the immune system involve Checkpoint inhibitors, Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells), Monoclonal antibodies, Cancer vaccines, Cytokines, Radio-immunotherapy and Oncolytic virus therapy. The molecular characterization of several tumor antigens (TA) indicates that these TA can be utilized as promising candidates in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Here in this review, we highlight and summarize the different categories of emerging cancer immunotherapies along with the immunologically recognized tumor antigens involved in the tumor microenvironment.