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Eur Urol Oncol. 2021 Sep 21:S2588-9311(21)00155-3. doi: 10.1016/j.euo.2021.09.003. Online ahead of print.
Motivated by recent presentation of the KEYNOTE-564 interim results for adjuvant pembrolizumab in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, we discuss concepts that can guide patient-specific decision-making in selecting individuals for whom adjuvant therapies should be offered.