DocWire Hematology/Oncology Editors chose the Top Oncology and Hematology Journal Articles on social media and summarized the results below. Take a read and click the source for the link to PubMed.
Mean platelet volume predicts survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and type 2 diabetes
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) having pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a poorer prognosis than those without T2DM. Moreover, accumulating evidence reveals that activated platelets play a crucial role in tumor and T2DM. The mean platelet volume (MPV) indicates platelet activation and is altered in malignancies. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of MPV in patients with HCC having T2DM.
This retrospective study performed between January 2010 and December 2013 included 331 patients with HCC (165 with T2DM and 166 without T2DM) . The overall survival was compared, and the predictors of overall survival were analyzed.
The patients with T2DM had lower MPV levels than those without T2DM. Furthermore, the MPV levels significantly differentiated T2DM from non-T2DM. In addition, for patients with T2DM, the overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with low MPV levels than in those with high MPV levels. Multivariate analysis identified decreased MPV as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival only in patients with T2DM, but not in those without T2DM.
Reduced MPV was a prognostic factor for poor outcome in patients with HCC and T2DM.
Tumor Heterogeneity Correlates with Less Immune Response and Worse Survival in Breast Cancer Patients
Intratumor heterogeneity implies that subpopulations of cancer cells that differ in genetic, phenotypic, or behavioral characteristics coexist in a single tumor (Ma in Breast Cancer Res Treat 162(1):39-48, 2017; Martelotto in Breast Cancer Res 16(3):210, 2014). Tumor heterogeneity drives progression, metastasis and treatment resistance, but its relationship with tumor infiltrating immune cells is a matter of debate, where some argue that tumors with high heterogeneity may generate neoantigens that attract immune cells, and others claim that immune cells provide selection pressure that shapes tumor heterogeneity (McGranahan et al. in Science 351(6280):1463-1469, 2016; McGranahan and Swanton in Cell 168(4):613-628, 2017). We sought to study the association between tumor heterogeneity and immune cells in a real-world cohort utilizing The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Mutant allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) was calculated to estimate intratumoral heterogeneity, and immune cell compositions were estimated using CIBERSORT. Survival analyses were demonstrated using Kaplan-Meir curves.
Tumors with high heterogeneity (high MATH) were associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.049), as well as estrogen receptor-positive (p = 0.011) and non-triple-negative tumors (p = 0.01). High MATH tumors were also associated with less infiltration of anti-tumor CD8 (p < 0.013) and CD4 T cells (p < 0.00024), more tumor-promoting regulatory T cells (p < 4e-04), lower expression of T-cell exhaustion markers, specifically PDL-1 (p = 0.0031), IDO2 (p = 0.34), ADORA2A (p = 0.018), VISTA (p = 0.00013), and CCR4 (p < 0.00001), lower expression of cytolytic enzymes granzyme A (p = 0.0056) and perforin 1 (p = 0.053), and low cytolytic activity score (p = 0.0028).
High heterogeneity tumors are associated with less immune cell infiltration, less activation of the immune response, and worse survival in breast cancer. Our results support the notion that tumor heterogeneity is shaped by selection pressure of tumor-infiltrating immune cells.