A study published in the March issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism assessed the association between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD).
“Inconsistent associations between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed in epidemiological studies. Moreover, the relationship of bioactive components in coffee with BMD has not been studied,” the researcher wrote. “The aim of the current study is to identify coffee-associated metabolites and evaluate their association with BMD.”
The study assessed two independent cohorts of healthy adults participating in the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study. Patients were stratified by whether they visited in 2001–2010 (n=329) or 2015–2016 (n=235). All participants filled out a food frequency questionnaire that included coffee consumption. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry platforms were used to perform untargeted metabolomic profiling on fasting serum samples; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was employed to determine BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck.
12 Metabolites Associated with Coffee Consumption
In total, a positive correlation was determined between 12 different serum metabolites and coffee consumption. The most significant associations were observed with quinate, 3-hydroxypyridine sulfate, and trigonelline (N’-methylnicotinate). Of the 12 metabolites identified. 11 had been previously identified to be correlated with coffee intake, of which six were correlated with caffeine metabolism. Significant positive associations were observed between habitual coffee intake and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. A significant relationship was observed between the metabolite 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluraci (β=0.012, SE=0.005; P=0.013) and BMD at the lumbar spine; 3-hydroxyhippurate (β=0.007, SE=0.003; P=0.027) and trigonelline (β=0.007, SE=0.004; P=0.043) were significantly correlated with femoral neck BMD.
“12 metabolites were significantly associated with coffee intake, including 6 caffeine metabolites. Three of them (AFMU, 3-hydroxyhippurate, and trigonelline) were further associated with BMD. These metabolites could be potential biomarkers of coffee consumption and affect bone health,” the authors said in summary.