Plant protein intake is associated with a lower risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, according to a review published online July 22 in The BMJ.
Sina Naghshi, from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported the risk estimates for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in adults, along with data about protein intake.
The researchers identified 32 studies with follow-up lasting 3.5 to 32 years for 715,128 participants and included 31 studies in the meta-analysis. In total, 113,039 deaths occurred (16,429 from cardiovascular disease and 22,303 from cancer). Total protein intake was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (pooled effect size, 0.94). Neither total protein intake nor animal protein intake was significantly associated with the risk for cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality. There was an even greater effect associated with intake of plant protein (pooled effect size, 0.92) and cardiovascular disease mortality (pooled hazard ratio, 0.88). There was no association observed between plant protein intake and cancer mortality. Three percent additional energy per day from plant proteins was associated with a 5 percent lower risk for death from all causes.
“Replacement of foods high in animal protein with plant protein sources could be associated with longevity,” the authors write.
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#bmj Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies https://t.co/mqkNRXDIkw
— North Grey Lit Collection (@NorthGreyLitC) July 23, 2020
Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies | The BMJ https://t.co/R0KcCqKkrn
— Rachel M Wagner MD (@drrachelwagner) July 23, 2020
Socioeconomic status could be a major confounder here. Do the rich live longer because they eat more protein? Is a vegan diet more likely in advantaged groups? https://t.co/xcJPenemfX
— Dr Helen Salisbury (@HelenRSalisbury) July 23, 2020
"Intake of plant protein was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality. Overall, all available studies support the beneficial effects of plant proteins on human health." #plantbased #vegan https://t.co/9c8zM9Haqq
— Animalusa (@Animilusa) July 23, 2020