Breaking News from ADA 2019: June 10, 2019

Risk Factors for Heart Disease in Young T1D Patients

Elevated blood pressure and glucose levels are both significant risk factors for heart disease in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), a new long-term study concluded. The results of the study, “Optimal Blood Pressure Goals for Cardiovascular Health in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes,” were presented at the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA’s) 79th Scientific Sessions at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco.

The study included 605 T1D patients who were diagnosed at age ≤ 17 years; patients were followed for 25 years. Patients with elevated blood pressure levels (≥ 120/80 mm Hg) were twice as likely to develop coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients with blood pressure < 120/80 mm Hg.

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Teplizumab Could Delay Diabetes Diagnosis

Relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients are significantly more likely to develop the disease themselves. A recent double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial found that these patients could stave off this diagnosis for as long as two years with immunotherapy. The research was presented at the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA’s) 79th Scientific Sessions at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco.

Family members of T1D patients and those with multiple antibodies and abnormal glucose tolerance were randomized to receive either teplizumab—an FcR non-binding humanized monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody—or placebo. For two weeks, patients received treatment in the form of daily 30-minute intravenous drug infusions.

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Vitamin D Supplements Do Not Prevent Diabetes Onset

About 84 million Americans have prediabetes, which puts them at significant risk for progressing to type 2 diabetes. Several lifestyle changes—such as weight loss and exercise—could reduce this risk. However, the use of vitamin D supplements may not be a beneficial change, according to research presented at the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) 79th Scientific Sessions at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco.

The study, “The Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study – A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial for Diabetes Prevention,” included 2,423 adults aged ≥ 30 years with a body mass index between 25 kg/m2 (23 kg/m2 for Asian Americans) and 42 kg/m2 at high risk for diabetes (defined as meeting two of the following prediabetes criteria: fasting glucose 100– 125 mg/dL [5.6–6.9 mmol/L], 2-h post load glucose after 75-g glucose load 140–199 mg/dL [7.8–11.0 mmol/L], and hemoglobin A1c 5.7–6.4% [39–47 mmol/mol]). Patients were randomized to take a daily dose of either 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 (n = 1,211) or a matching placebo (n = 1,212). During a median 2.5 years of follow-up, patients underwent blood tests every six months to test for diabetes.

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