Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Is Associated with Improved Oncological Outcome in Men Treated with Salvage Radiation Therapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer

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Eur Urol Oncol. 2022 Jan 22:S2588-9311(22)00001-3. doi: 10.1016/j.euo.2022.01.001. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has shown superior diagnostic accuracy to conventional imaging for the detection of prostate cancer deposits . Consequently, clinical management changes have been reported in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We hypothesized that, due to the exclusion of patients with metastatic disease on PSMA-PET/CT, those who underwent local salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after restaging PSMA-PET/CT for BCR may have better oncological outcomes than patients who underwent “blind” SRT.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the oncological outcome of a patient cohort that underwent PSMA-PET imaging prior to SRT with that of a patient cohort that did not have PSMA-PET imaging before SRT.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 610 patients who underwent SRT, of whom 298 underwent PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT and 312 did not. No additional hormonal therapy was prescribed.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: To compare both cohorts, case-control matching was performed, using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value at the initiation of SRT, pathological grade group, pathological T stage, surgical margin status, and biochemical persistence after RARP as matching variables. The outcome variable was biochemical progression at 1 yr after SRT, defined as either a rise of PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml above the nadir after SRT or the start of additional treatment.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: After case-control matching, 216 patients were matched in both cohorts (108 patients per cohort). In the patient cohort without PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT, of 108 patients, 23 (21%) had biochemical progression of disease at 1 yr after SRT, compared with nine (8%) who underwent restaging PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS: PSMA-PET/CT is found to be associated with an improved oncological outcome in patients who undergo SRT for BCR after RARP.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Performing prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence of disease after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, before initiating salvage radiation therapy, resulted in improved short-term oncological outcomes.

PMID:35074282 | DOI:10.1016/j.euo.2022.01.001