Osteoblastic protein kinase D1 contributes to the prostate cancer cells dormancy via GAS6-circadian clock signaling

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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2022 May 17:119296. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2022.119296. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Disseminated prostate cancer (PCa) is known to have a strong propensity for bone marrow. These disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) can survive in bone marrow for years without obvious proliferation, while maintaining the ability to develop into metastatic lesions. However, how DTCs kept dormant and recur is still uncertain. Here, we focus on the role of osteoblastic protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in PCa (PC-3 and DU145) dormancy using co-culture experiments. Using flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunofluorescence, we observed that in co-cultures osteoblasts could induce a dormant state in PCa cells, which is manifested by a fewer cell divisions, a decrease Ki-67-positive populations and a lower ERK/p38 ratio. In contrast, silencing of PKD1 gene in osteoblasts impedes co-cultured prostate cancer cell’s dormancy ability. Mechanismly, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in osteoblasts induces PCa dormancy via activating CREB1, which promoting the expression and secretion of growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6). Furthermore, GAS6-induced dormancy signaling significantly increased the expression of core circadian clock molecules in PCa cells, and a negative correlation of circadian clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK and DEC2) with recurrence-free survival is observed in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Interestingly, the expression of cell cycle factors (p21, p27, CDK1 and PCNA) which regulated by circadian clock also upregulated in response to GAS6 stimulation. Taken together, we provide evidence that osteoblastic PKD1/CREB1/GAS6 signaling regulates cellular dormancy of PCa cells, and highlights the importance of circadian clock in PCa cells dormancy.

PMID:35595103 | DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2022.119296