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Eur Urol Focus. 2021 Jan 19:S2405-4569(20)30318-7. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2020.12.016. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Owing to the morbidity of established radical treatment options for prostate cancer, alternative whole-gland and focal treatment strategies have emerged. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one of the most studied sources for tissue ablation and has been used since the 1990s.
OBJECTIVE: To provide 21-yr oncological long-term follow-up data of an unselected series of patients who underwent whole-gland HIFU for nonmetastatic prostate cancer.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 674 patients were treated between November 1997 and November 2012 in one university center.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The oncological outcome was assessed by biopsy failure-free survival (BFFS), salvage treatment-free survival (STFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to estimate the prognostic relevance of clinical variables.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In total, 560 patients were included into the evaluation and the median follow-up was 15.1 yr, with a range up to 21.4 yr. At 15 yr, CSS rates for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were 95%, 89%, and 65%, respectively; MFS, STFS-1 (salvage treatment other than HIFU), STFS-2 (salvage treatment including repeat HIFU), and BFFS rates were 91%, 85%, and 58%; 77%, 63%, and 29%; 67%, 52%, and 28%; and 82%, 73%, and 47%, respectively. Preoperative high-risk category was an independent predictor of inferior OS, CSS, MFS, STFS, and BFFS.
CONCLUSIONS: Although whole-gland HIFU achieved good long-term cancer control in low- and intermediate-risk patients, high-risk patients should not be treated routinely by HIFU. Intermediate-risk patients achieve high CSS and MFS rates, but a relevant salvage treatment rate has to be reckoned with. Long-term data after whole-gland therapy might help derive implications for focal treatment sources and patient selection.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Long-term data after whole-gland high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy are crucial to prove its oncological efficacy, and may help derive implications for focal treatment strategies and patient selection. In this context, whole-gland HIFU achieved good long-term cancer control up to 21 yr in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Owing to considerably inferior long-term cancer control, it should not routinely be used in high-risk PCa patients.