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Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2022 Feb;47:221-226. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.12.011. Epub 2021 Dec 16.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many dietary supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids (ω3), are suspected to affect blood coagulation and platelet function. Despite no clinical evidence, discontinuation is recommended before radical prostatectomy. However, long-chain ω3 (LCω3) appear beneficial against prostate cancer progression. Here, we aim to determine the effect of LCω3 supplements on perioperative bleeding, hemoglobin, platelets, and postoperative complications after radical prostatectomy.
METHODS: This is a planned exploratory analysis of 130 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer grade group 2 or greater enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02333435) testing the effects of LCω3, on prostate cancer biological and pathological outcomes at radical prostatectomy as main outcomes. The LCω3 intervention (MAG-EPA 3 g daily) or equivalent placebo was given 4-10 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. An intention-to-treat analysis approach was used with bi-variate statistical testing of bleeding and complications outcomes. We also estimated the difference between groups using linear regression and non-parametric quantile regression models. All models were adjusted for confounding variables selected on clinical relevance.
RESULTS: We found no clinically significant effect of LCω3 versus placebo on perioperative bleeding, laboratory tests or postoperative complications. In contrast, as expected, we found a significant increase in perioperative bleeding in open retropubic radical prostatectomy compared to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (adjusted difference 115.8 mL, p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ω3 supplements can be safely taken before radical prostatectomy without increasing surgical bleeding risk. These findings are relevant since ω3 may beneficially affect prostate cancer evolution.