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Eur Urol Focus. 2020 Dec 28:S2405-4569(20)30301-1. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2020.12.002. Online ahead of print.
Recent evidence from randomised trials supports the diagnostic superiority of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) over conventional imaging in the detection of distant occult metastasis in men with newly diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer. This may result in a rise in the detection of de novo synchronous hormone-sensitive “oligometastatic” prostate cancer. We outline the evidence supporting PSMA PET/CT imaging in primary staging. We also discuss the translation of positive areas with a high probability of distant metastasis into clinical therapeutic targets for metastasis-directed interventions. Finally, we highlight the role of PSMA PET/CT as an imaging biomarker. This may have future utility in disease monitoring and prediction of response to systemic, local cytoreductive and metastasis-directed interventions. PATIENT SUMMARY: A new whole-body scan can accurately detect cancer deposits in men in whom distant prostate cancer spread is suspected. This may be useful for monitoring and predicting response to drug therapy, treatments to the prostate, and cancer deposits.