Biochemical recurrence of pathological T2+ localized prostate cancer after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: A 10-year surveillance

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World J Clin Cases. 2021 Feb 16;9(5):1026-1036. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i5.1026.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: pT2+ prostate cancer (PCa), a term first used in 2004, refers to organ-confined PCa characterized by a positive surgical margin (PSM) without extracapsular extension. Patients with a PSM are vulnerable to biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP); however, whether adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) is imperative to PSM after RP remains controversial. This study had the longest follow-up on pT2+ PCa after robotic-assisted RP since 2004. Moreover, we discussed our viewpoints on pT2+ PCa based on real-world experiences.

AIM: To conclude a 10-year surveillance on pT2+ PCa and compare our results with those of the published literature.

METHODS: Forty-eight patients who underwent robotic-assisted RP between 2008 and 2011 were enrolled. Two serial tests of prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.2 ng/mL were defined as BCR. Various designed factors were analyzed using statistical tools for BCR risk. SAS 9.4 was applied and significance was defined as P < 0.05. Univariate, multivariate, linear regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed for statistical analyses.

RESULTS: With a median follow-up period of 9 years, 25 (52%) patients had BCR (BCR group), and the remaining 23 (48%) patients did not (non-BCR group). The median time for BCR test was 4 years from the first postoperative PSA nadir. Preoperative PSA was significantly different between the BCR and non-BCR groups (P < 0.001), and ROC curve analysis of preoperative PSA suggested a cut-off value of 19.09 ng/mL (sensitivity, 0.600; specificity: 0.739). The linear regression analysis showed no correlation between time to BCR and preoperative PSA (Pearson’s correlation, 0.13; adjusted R 2 = 0.026).

CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted RP in pT2+ PCa of worse conditions can provide better BCR-free survival. A surgical technique limiting the PSM in favorable situations is warranted to lower the pT2+ PCa BCR rate. Preoperative PSA cut-off value of 19.09 ng/mL is a predictive factor for BCR. Based on our experiences and review of the literature, we do not recommend routine aRT for pT2+ PCa.

PMID:33644166 | PMC:PMC7896665 | DOI:10.12998/wjcc.v9.i5.1026