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Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2021 Sep 30;93(3):291-295. doi: 10.4081/aiua.2021.3.291.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Even though the only established risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) are age, ethnic origin and family history, there are data suggesting that environmental factors, such as the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), may also play a role in the etiology of the disease. The aim of this study is to correlate MetS with PCa diagnosis and Gleason score (GS) in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center study including 378 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in our department during the years from 2018 to 2019. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PCa. Group A included 197 patients diagnosed with PCa while Group B consisted of 181 patients without PCa in their biopsy result. Multiple variables such as the presence of MetS and its components were evaluated in correlation to the presence of PCa and PCa characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics v.23 program.
RESULTS: Mean PSA value was 8.7 ng/dl in the PCa group and 7.1 ng/dl in the non PCa group, respectively. MetS was diagnosed in 108 patients (54.8%) with PCa and 80 patients (44.2%) without PCa and the difference was statistically significant. Hypertriglyceridemia was the MetS component with statistically higher frequency in PCa patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of MetS was higher in higher Gleason score PCa (GS ≥ 4+3) patients vs lower Gleason score PCa (GS ≤ 3+4) patients. More specifically, MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL levels were independent factors associated with higher Gleason score PCa (GS ≥ 4+3).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients suffering from MetS who undergo prostate biopsy present with higher rates of PCa diagnosis and higher GS in comparison with patients with a normal metabolic profile.