Optimal Management of Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure and Atrial Fibrillation to Reduce the Risk of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and atrial fibrillation (AF) are risk factors for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study examined the effects of the simultaneous control of all 3 conditions on the new-onset HFpEF in this population.


This prospective cohort study enrolled 552 patients with T2DM, hypertension and AF, but without clinical signs or symptoms of heart failure. The participants were followed up for 5 years to examine the effects of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c: < 7.0%, 7.0%-8.0% and > 8.0%), blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP: <120 mmHg, 120-140 mmHg and >140 mmHg) or rhythm versus rate control for AF on new-onset HFpEF.


With a follow-up of 5 years, the new-onset HFpEF occurred in 62 of 552 enrolled participants. Among the different control level for diabetes, hypertension and AF, the intensive blood glucose (BG) control, poor BP control and rate control of AF had the highest risk of new-onset HFpEF, and the conservative BG control, intensive BP control and rhythm control of AF had the lowest risk of new-onset HFpEF. Multivariable cox regression analysis showed that both poor BP control (HR: 1.421 95% CI: 1.013-1.992, P=0.042) and rate control of AF (HR: 1.362 95% CI: 1.006-1.821, P=0.033) were independently associated with the development of new-onset HFpEF.


This study demonstrated that, besides intensive BP control, conservative BG control and rhythm control of AF were crucial factors to delay the progression of HFpEF among patients with T2DM, hypertension and AF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.