This article was originally published here
Autoimmun Rev. 2021 Apr 14:102833. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102833. Online ahead of print.
Lymphocytes constitute an essential and potent effector compartment of the immune system. Therefore, their development and functions must be strictly regulated to avoid inappropriate immune responses, such as autoimmune reactions. Several lines of evidence from genetics (e.g. association with multiple sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis), human expression studies (e.g. increased expression in target tissues and draining lymph nodes of patients with autoimmune diseases), animal models (e.g. loss of functional protein protects animals from the development of collagen-induced arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, type 1 diabetes, bleomycin-induced fibrosis) strongly support a causal link between the aberrant expression of the lymphocyte-restricted transcriptional regulator BOB.1 and the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of unusual structural and functional plasticity of BOB.1, stringent regulation of its expression, and the pivotal role that BOB.1 plays in shaping B- and T-cell responses. We discuss recent developments highlighting the significant contribution of BOB.1 to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and how to leverage our knowledge to target this regulator to treat autoimmune tissue inflammation.