This article was originally published here
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1299:31-41. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-60204-8_3.
Peroxisomopathies are qualitative or quantitative deficiencies in peroxisomes which lead to increases in the level of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and can be associated with more or less pronounced dysfunction of central nervous system cells: glial and microglial cells. Currently, in frequent neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), peroxisomal dysfunction is also suspected due to an increase in VLCFA, which can be associated with a decrease of plasmalogens, in these patients. Moreover, in patients suffering from peroxisomopathies, such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), AD, or MS, the increase in oxidative stress observed leads to the formation of cytotoxic oxysterols: 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) and 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC). These observations led to the demonstration that 7KC and 7β-OHC alter the biogenesis and activity of peroxisomes in glial and microglial cells. In X-ALD, AD, and MS, it is suggested that 7KC and 7β-OHC affecting the peroxisome, and which also induce mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress, and inflammation, could promote neurodegeneration. Consequently, the study of oxisome in peroxisomopathies, AD and MS, could help to better understand the pathophysiology of these diseases to identify therapeutic targets for effective treatments.