To assess the value of high-density mapping (HDM) in revealing undetected incomplete pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) after the fourth-generation cryoballoon (CB4G) ablation compared to the previous cryoballoon’s versions.
Methods and Results
Consecutive patients with paroxysmal or early-persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing CB ablation as the index procedure, assisted by HDM, were retrospectively included in this study. A total of 68 patients (52 males; mean age: 60 ± 12 years, 58 paroxysmal AF) were included, and a total of 272 veins were mapped. Fourth-generation cryoballoon with the new spiral mapping catheter (SMC) was used in 35 patients (51%). Time to PVI was determined in 102/132 (77%) and in 112/140 (80%) veins during second-generation cryoballoon/third-generation cryoballoon (CB2G/CB3G) and CB4G ablation, respectively (P = 0.66). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of discrepancy rate between the SMC and the mini-basket catheter in PV detection after CB4G and CB2G/CB3G ablation(1.4% vs. 7.6%; P = 0.01). A total of 57 patients (84%) remained free of symptomatic AF during a mean follow-up of 9.8 ± 4.6 months.
High-density mapping after cryoballoon ablation using CB4G and the new SMC identifies incomplete PVI, not detected by the new SMC, in a significantly lower proportion of veins compared to HDM performed after the other generation CB ablation.