World J Clin Cases. 2022 Apr 26;10(12):3822-3827. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i12.3822.
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma patients usually present with CRAB symptoms (hypercalcemia, renal disease, anemia and bone diseases) as initial manifestations. Bleeding symptoms are less common, most of which result from thrombocytopenia or infiltration of plasmacytoma. Relatively, coagulopathy is not so common, especially isolated coagulopathy without CRAB manifestations, which is very rare. Herein, we report a 54-year old female who was hospitalized for intermittent and recurrent mild oral mucosal hemorrhage without other bleeding symptoms for almost one month or typical myeloma features.
CASE SUMMARY: Two months before admission, the patient underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to sick sinus syndrome. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged. Factor X deficiency was demonstrated to account for the coagulation dysfunction. An M protein peak was shown by serum protein electrophoresis. 26.11% of abnormal plasma cells were detected in bone marrow by flow cytometry, expressing CD38, CD138, CD56 and intracellular immunoglobulin Kappa light chain. Bone marrow biopsy also proved the presence of abnormal plasma cells, but Congo red stain was negative. The patient was finally diagnosed with multiple myeloma IgA-κ type. A literature review indicated that factor X deficiency was highly related to amyloidosis. Before bleeding signs, the patient had cardiac arrhythmia, enlargement of the heart, and progressive heart failure; thus, cardiac amyloidosis was suspected.
CONCLUSION: Bleeding related to coagulation dysfunction is uncommon in multiple myeloma, especially as the initial manifestation. Amyloidosis is a well-recognized cause of isolated acquired factor X deficiency.