Immunotherapy in AL Amyloidosis

Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2022 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s11864-021-00922-4. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Light-chain amyloidosis is a rare disorder where a small clone of plasma cells is producing excess toxic light chains that deposit in various organs and cause dysfunction. Cardiac involvement is a major determinant of survival and rapid reduction of light chain is critical for recovery of organ function and overall survival. Immunotherapy targeting the clonal plasma cells and amyloid fibrils has emerged as a promising candidate. Daratumumab, both alone and in combinations with other anti-myeloma agents, is able to achieve deep hematologic responses and has greatly improved outcomes. Isatuximab, elotuzumab, and CAEL101 have also shown promising results and further studies are ongoing in the frontline as well as the relapsed/refractory setting. The frailty of AL patients and the relapsing/remitting nature of the disease present unique challenges, and the low toxicity of monoclonal antibodies makes them well-suited for these patients. Other immunotherapy agents including chimeric antigen receptor T cells, bispecific antibodies, and antibody-drug conjugates have altered the landscape in treatment of multiple myeloma, and are in the early phase of evaluation in patients with AL amyloidosis with results eagerly awaited.

PMID:35635625 | DOI:10.1007/s11864-021-00922-4