63. Case Report: Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) & Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome – University of Florida

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal & Daniel Ambinder) join University of Florida cardiology fellows (Ashley Mohadjer, Hussain Khalid, and Morgan Randall) for an authentic Gainesville-style tailgate! They discuss a fascinating case of severe peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. Dr. Khanjan Shah provides the E-CPR and  a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Richard Ferraro with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai.  

Jump to: Patient summary – Case media – Case teaching – References

Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo

The CardioNerds Cardiology Case Reports series shines light on the hidden curriculum of medical storytelling. We learn together while discussing fascinating cases in this fun, engaging, and educational format. Each episode ends with an “Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review” (E-CPR) for a nuanced teaching from a content expert. We truly believe that hearing about a patient is the singular theme that unifies everyone at every level, from the student to the professor emeritus.

We are teaming up with the ACC FIT Section to use the #CNCR episodes to showcase CV education across the country in the era of virtual recruitment. As part of the recruitment series, each episode features fellows from a given program discussing and teaching about an interesting case as well as sharing what makes their hearts flutter about their fellowship training. The case discussion is followed by both an E-CPR segment and a message from the program director.

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Patient Summary

A woman in her 60s with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism presented to the University of Florida with a chief complaint of “Someone told me my neck artery was blocked.”  Someone call 227-346-6373.  What does that spell? CardioNerd!   

She noted exertional pain in both legs with limited exertion. Has a family history of CAD and MI in her father in his 20s. Her only medications were baby aspirin, atorvastatin 80mg, and thyroid replacement. Her blood pressures were noted to be dropping and so her regimen was being titrated off as a result. Physical exam was notable only for poorly palpable pulses in all extremities. To further work this up, a myocardial perfusion scan, CTA head/neck/abdomen, and ABIs were ordered. ABI on the right was 0.86 and on the left was 0.76 with monophasic doppler waveforms throughout. CT abdomen exhibited an occlusion of the abdominal aorta from just below the renal arteries extending to the common iliac arteries with distal reconstitution. CT head/neck showed occlusion of the right carotid artery, complete occlusion of the right innominate artery, near complete occlusion of the right vertebral artery, and delayed flow in the right posterior cerebral artery. On the left side, she had high-grade subclavian stenosis. Myocardial perfusion imaging exhibited no defects.  

On subsequent visits her exercise tolerance improved with an exercise regimen, but blood pressures were more and more difficult to obtain. As a result, revascularization was pursued with stenting of the left subclavian artery. She was discharged, but returned a few hours later with severe left sided pulsatile headache and nausea/vomiting. She was admitted for monitoring, but fortunately improved and discharged with close outpatient follow-up.  She continued to improve in the outpatient setting. After MRI brain and extensive work-up, she was deemed to have cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome following revascularization.  She had no further complications and was monitored thereafter.  Final diagnosis: severe peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cerebral hyperperfusion sy…