Making Artificial Intelligence Lemonade Out of Data Lemons: Adaptation of a Public Apical Echo Database for Creation of a Subxiphoid Visual Estimation Automatic Ejection Fraction Machine Learning Algorithm

This article was originally published here

J Ultrasound Med. 2021 Nov 24. doi: 10.1002/jum.15889. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: A paucity of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) databases limits machine learning (ML). Assess feasibility of training ML algorithms to visually estimate left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) from a subxiphoid (SX) window using only apical 4-chamber (A4C) images.

METHODS: Researchers used a long-short-term-memory algorithm for image analysis. Using the Stanford EchoNet-Dynamic database of 10,036 A4C videos with calculated exact EF, researchers tested 3 ML training permeations. First, training on unaltered Stanford A4C videos, then unaltered and 90° clockwise (CW) rotated videos and finally unaltered, 90° rotated and horizontally flipped videos. As a real-world test, we obtained 615 SX videos from Harbor-UCLA (HUCLA) with EF calculations in 5% ranges. Researchers performed 1000 randomizations of EF point estimation within HUCLA EF ranges to compensate for ML and HUCLA EF mismatch, obtaining a mean value for absolute error (MAE) comparison and performed Bland-Altman analyses.

RESULTS: The ML algorithm EF mean MAE was estimated at 23.0, with a range of 22.8-23.3 using unaltered A4C video, mean MAE was 16.7, with a range of 16.5-16.9 using unaltered and 90° CW rotated video, mean MAE was 16.6, with a range of 16.3-16.8 using unaltered, 90° CW rotated and horizontally flipped video training. Bland-Altman showed weakest agreement at 40-45% EF.

CONCLUSIONS: Researchers successfully adapted unrelated ultrasound window data to train a POCUS ML algorithm with fair MAE using data manipulation to simulate a different ultrasound examination. This may be important for future POCUS algorithm design to help overcome a paucity of POCUS databases.

PMID:34820867 | DOI:10.1002/jum.15889