Local infectious complications in cardiac surgery: etiology and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis

Khirurgiia (Mosk). 2022;(6):40-47. doi: 10.17116/hirurgia202206140.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol, prevalence and etiology of local infectious complications after open cardiac surgery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort observational study was performed between 2010 and 2019 at the Ural Institute of Cardiology. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was performed using the main (cefuroxime 1.5 g IV every 6 hours) and alternative protocols (vancomycin 15 mg/kg IV every 12 hours).

RESULTS: The prevalence of local infectious complications throughout the entire follow-up period was 4.5±0.3% [95% CI 4.45-4.54]. There were 42 cases of deep infection (0.9±0.13%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci prevailed (15.9±2.5% of cases, 35 cultures). Resistant flora included coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant staphylococci (13 cultures, 37.1±8.2%) and representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family, producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (8 cultures, 50.0±18.2%). Antimicrobial prophylaxis with vancomycin increases the risk of local infectious complications (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.20, 2.55, p=0.001). Both protocols of antimicrobial prophylaxis demonstrated comparable efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

CONCLUSION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common cause of local infectious complications in cardiac surgery. Modern antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens are relevant despite resistant flora.

PMID:35658135 | DOI:10.17116/hirurgia202206140