Whole Body PBPK Modeling of Remdesivir and its Metabolites to Aid in Estimating Active Metabolite Exposure in the Lung and Liver in Patients with Organ Dysfunction

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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Oct 16. doi: 10.1002/cpt.2445. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the first drug approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of COVID-19 in certain patients requiring hospitalization. As a nucleoside analogue prodrug, RDV undergoes intracellular multistep activation to form its pharmacologically active species, GS-443902, which is not detectable in the plasma. A question arises that whether the observed plasma exposure of RDV and its metabolites would correlate with or be informative about the exposure of GS-443902 in tissues. A whole body PBPK modeling and simulation approach was utilized to elucidate the disposition mechanism of RDV and its metabolites in the lung and liver and explore the relationship between plasma and tissue PK of RDV and its metabolites in healthy subjects. In addition, the potential alteration of plasma and tissue PK of RDV and its metabolites in patients with organ dysfunction was explored. Our simulation results indicated that intracellular exposure of GS-443902 was decreased in the liver and increased in the lung in subjects with hepatic impairment relative to the subjects with normal liver function. In subjects with severe renal impairment, the exposure of GS-443902 in the liver was slightly increased, whereas the lung exposure of GS-443902 was not impacted. These predictions along with the organ impairment study results may be used to support decision-making regarding the RDV dosage adjustment in these patient subgroups. The modeling exercise illustrated the potential of whole body PBPK modeling to aid in decision-making for nucleotide analogue prodrugs, particularly when the active metabolite exposure in the target tissues is not available.

PMID:34656075 | DOI:10.1002/cpt.2445