Thrombohaemorhhagic balance in coronavirus disease 2019 and its management: a perspective

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Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2021 Apr 1;32(3):167-171. doi: 10.1097/MBC.0000000000000993.


Coronavirus disease 2019 infection produce a prothrombotic state. This is initiated through multiple pathways and is finally aggravated by cross talks with cytokine storm and neutrophil, platelet, complement activation. All these combine towards the second week of illness to produce thrombosis in the lung capillaries surrounding the alveolus producing characteristic pulmonary dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 > 300, normal or minimally increased lung compliance and very high d-dimer levels) and a high rate of peripheral venous thrombosis. International and many national guidelines have approached this state in different ways but all emphasized the need for management and prevention of widespread thrombosis. It is felt more aggressive and graded thrombosis prevention and management should be initiated early in the treatment. d-Dimer, neutrophil count, SaO2, fibrinogen levels should be used to control the hypercoagulability. Drugs like statins which have anti-inflammatory action as well as ability to reduce fibrinogen and other clotting factors should be used in the beginning along with antiplatelet drugs and progressively complement activation and neutrophil extracellular traps inhibitors, oral mucopolysaccharides, full-scale anticoagulation along with judicial use of fibrinolysis supporting drugs should be added. In the present review, we have evaluated the various studies and argued the rationality that the anticoagulation in this condition should be initiated early during the infection and should be increased in a graded manner depending on clinical and laboratory progression of the condition until a strong specific antiviral drug for coronavirus disease 2019 infection is available.

PMID:33827111 | DOI:10.1097/MBC.0000000000000993