This article was originally published here
Acta Oncol. 2021 Feb 27:1-12. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2021.1892182. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who present with multiple pulmonary nodules, it is often difficult to distinguish metastatic disease from synchronous primary lung cancers (SPLC). We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) alone to synchronous primary lesions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with synchronous AJCC 8th Edition Stage IA-IIA NSCLC and treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to all lesions between 2009-2018 were reviewed. SPLC was defined as patients having received two courses of SBRT within 180 days for treatment of separate early stage tumors. In total, 36 patients with 73 lesions were included. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), cumulative incidence of local failure (LF), and regional/distant failure (R/DF) were estimated and compared with a control cohort of solitary early stage NSCLC patients.
RESULTS: Median PFS was 38.8 months (95% CI 14.3-not reached [NR]); 3-year PFS rates were 50.6% (35.6-72.1). Median OS was 45.9 months (95% CI: 35.9-NR); 3-year OS was 63.0% (47.4-83.8). Three-year cumulative incidence of LF and R/DF was 6.6% (3.7-13.9) and 35.7% (19.3-52.1), respectively. Patients with SPLC were compared to a control group (n = 272) of patients treated for a solitary early stage NSCLC. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS (p = .91) or OS (p = .43). Evaluation of the patterns of failure showed a trend for worse cumulative incidence of R/DF in SPLC patients as compared to solitary early stage NSCLC (p = .06).
CONCLUSION: SBRT alone to multiple lung tumors with SPLC results in comparable PFS, OS, and LF rates to a cohort of patients treated for solitary early stage NSCLC. Those with SPLC had non-significantly higher R/DF. Patients with SPLC should be followed closely for failure and possible salvage therapy.