Sociodemographic and environmental health risk factor of COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: An ecological study

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One Health. 2021 Dec;13:100303. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100303. Epub 2021 Aug 15.


Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly emerged on a global scale. Many factors have influenced the spread of COVID-19. This research studies the sociodemographic and environmental health risk factors associated with COVID-19. The study used an ecological study design with subdistricts as its unit of analysis. The total population was 44 subdistricts. Data analysis used correlation and linear regression tests. The study results showed that the average COVID-19 incident rate in Jakarta is 99.8 per 10,000 population. Risk factors for the spread of COVID-19 were associated with population’s high level of education (B = 3.094, p value<0.001), population density (B = 0.275, p value = 0.029), and slum area (B = 0.404, p value<0.001). The main risk factor for the spread of COVID-19 in Jakarta is high level of education, which can reflect a higher economic status to the population and a tendency to be more mobile. The government needs to enforce a mobility restriction to lessen the spread of COVID-19.

PMID:34423107 | PMC:PMC8364679 | DOI:10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100303