Sex-, Race- and Ethnicity-Based Differences in Thromboembolic Events Among Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19

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J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Nov 30:e022829. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.022829. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have an increased risk of thromboembolic events. Whether sex, race or ethnicity impacts these events is unknown. We studied the association between sex, race, and ethnicity and venous and arterial thromboembolic events among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results We used the American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease COVID-19 registry. Primary exposures were sex and race and ethnicity, as defined by the registry. Primary outcomes were venous thromboembolic events and arterial thromboembolic events. We used logistic regression for risk adjustment. We studied 21 528 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 across 107 centers (54.1% men; 38.1% non-Hispanic White, 25.4% Hispanic, 25.7% non-Hispanic Black, 0.5% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, and 5.9% other race and ethnicity). The rate of venous thromboembolic events was 3.7% and was more common in men (4.2%) than women (3.2%; P<0.001), and in non-Hispanic Black patients (4.9%) than other races and ethnicities (range, 1.3%-3.8%; P<0.001). The rate of arterial thromboembolic events was 3.9% and was more common in men (4.3%) than women (3.5%; P=0.002), and in non-Hispanic Black patients (5.0%) than other races and ethnicities (range, 2.3%-4.7%; P<0.001). Compared with men, women were less likely to experience venous thromboembolic events (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83) and arterial thromboembolic events (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.89). Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, non-Hispanic Black patients had the highest likelihood of venous thromboembolic events (adjusted OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54) and arterial thromboembolic events (adjusted OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.65). Conclusions Men and non-Hispanic Black adults hospitalized with COVID-19 are more likely to have venous and arterial thromboembolic events. These subgroups may represent at-risk patients more susceptible to thromboembolic COVID-19 complications.

PMID:34845920 | DOI:10.1161/JAHA.121.022829