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World J Clin Cases. 2021 Oct 26;9(30):9070-9076. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i30.9070.
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication in patients with cerebral infarction. However, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The knowledge of factors that may increase risk for HT may help in improving the safety of thrombolytic therapy.
AIM: To investigate the predictive value of serum calcium, albumin, globulin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels for HT after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction.
METHODS: Five hundred patients with acute cerebral infarction who received IVT with alteplase within 4.5 h after the onset of disease between January 2018 and January 2021 at our hospital were selected as the study subjects. They were divided into groups based on computed tomography scan results of the brain made within 36 h after thrombolysis. Forty patients with HT were enrolled in an observation group and 460 patients without HT were enrolled in a control group. Serum calcium, albumin, globulin and MMP-9 levels were compared between the two groups. Regression analysis was used to discuss the relationship between these indices and HT.
RESULTS: The previous history of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular diseases, smoking and alcohol intake were not associated with HT after IVT in patients with acute cerebral infarction (all P > 0.05). The National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NHISS) score was associated with HT after IVT in patients with acute cerebral infarction (P < 0.05). The serum calcium and albumin levels were lower in the observation group than in the control group (all P < 0.05). The levels of globulin and MMP-9 were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that NHISS score, serum calcium, albumin, globulins and MMP-9 were independent factors influencing the occurrence of HT following IVT in patients with cerebral infarction (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Serum calcium, albumin, globulin and MMP-9 levels are risk factors for HT after IVT in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Moreover, NHISS score can be used as a predictor of post-thrombolytic HT.