Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Relation to Disease Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Systemic Inflammation

Objectives: To evaluate the potential role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), an endothelial factor, in endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to determine its relation to disease activity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers.

Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional case-control study. One-hundred patients with RA were selected from out-patient clinics of Menoufia University Hospital, Menoufia, Egypt from May 2019 to May 2020. Fifty patients previously diagnosed with RA for more than 6 months were included as Group I, and fifty patients newly diagnosed with RA were included as Group II. Fifty healthy age- and gender-matched individuals were evaluated as the control group (Group III). Complete blood count, random blood glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lipid profile, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, serum levels of urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein, VCAM-1, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were determined.

Results: Patients with RA showed significantly higher serum VCAM-1, malondialdehyde, ESR, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic index levels than the control group. Also, they showed significantly lower total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein levels than control group. A significant positive correlation between serum VCAM-1 with disease activity, serum malondialdehyde, ESR, and C-reactive protein was observed. Also, a significant negative correlation between serum VCAM-1 and total antioxidant capacity was present.

Conclusion: Serum VCAM-1 increases in RA, and it correlates with disease activity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers.