Purpose: To analyze the safety and efficacy of image-guided genicular nerve cooled radiofrequency ablation (C-RFA) for the treatment of pain in non-surgical candidates with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to compare three- vs four-needle technique.
Method: This retrospective study included 50 consecutive patients with pain from moderate to severe knee OA refractory to anti-inflammatory analgesia that failed multiple intra-articular lidocaine-steroid injections and who were non-surgical total knee arthroplasty candidates because of comorbidities. Patients initially underwent anesthetic blocks of the superior medial/lateral femoral and inferior medial tibial genicular nerve branches and in some cases the suprapatellar genicular nerve branch. Radiofrequency ablations of the same nerve branches were performed 1-2 weeks after the nerve blocks. Follow-up outcome was collected at approximately 2 weeks, 1, 3, and 6 months after the C-RFA procedure utilizing VAS and clinically validated questionnaires.
Results: A total of 77 knees were treated. The mean total KOOS score improved significantly from baseline at 24.7 ± 14.1 to 59.4 ± 26.5 at 6 months after treatment (p < 0.0001), with significant improvement in mean pain score from 25.5 ± 15.2 to 64.5 ± 25.2 (p < 0.0001) and mean stiffness score from 35.1 ± 21.9 to 65.8 ± 24.9 (p < 0.0001). At 6 months, 65% of all patients demonstrated decreased opiate medication usage, 79% of patients in the four-needle, and 45% of patients in the three-needle arms (p = 0.03). No complications were reported.
Conclusions: The four-needle treatment approach offers an advantage in the overall efficacy in treating stiffness and pain in patients with moderate-to-severe OA refractory to conservative treatments leading to decreased opiate usage without complications.
Keywords: C-RFA; Knee; Nerve block; Osteoarthritis; Pain; Swelling.