Objective: It is well established that patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have a disrupted lipid profile and an increased cardiovascular risk. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), the ability of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol to accept cholesterol from macrophages, has been linked to cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to establish whether CEC and lipid profile were impaired in SSc patients with respect to controls and whether these changes were associated with disease-related data.
Methods: Cross-sectional study encompassed 188 individuals: 73 SSc patients and 115 controls. CEC, using an in vitro assay, and lipoprotein serum concentrations were assessed in patients and controls. A multivariable analysis was performed to study the differences in CEC between patients and controls, and if SSc-related data could explain such differences.
Results: The multivariable analysis adjusted for demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and lipid-related molecules showed that total cholesterol (beta coefficient: – 22 [95%CI – 37 to – 7], p = 0.004), triglycerides (beta coefficient: 24 [95%CI 2-47], p = 0.033), lipoprotein A (beta coefficient: 22 [95%CI 2-43], p = 0.033), and CEC (beta coefficient: – 6 [95%CI – 10 to – 2]%,p = 0.002) were significantly different between patients and controls. Skin thickness, as assessed by modified Rodnan skin score, was independently associated with a lower CEC (beta coefficient: – 0.21 [95%CI – 0.37 to – 0.05]%, p = 0.011) after multivariable adjustment.
Conclusion: SSc patients show an abnormal lipid profile with respect to controls including CEC. Skin thickness is independent and inversely associated with CEC in SSc patients.
Keywords: Cholesterol efflux capacity; Modified Rodnan skin score; Systemic sclerosis.