Predicting Survival in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: A Lesion-Specific and Personalized Approach

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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 Oct 7:S1936-878X(21)00631-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.07.026. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) at high risk of death and malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA).

BACKGROUND: To date there is no robust risk stratification scheme to predict outcomes in adults with rTOF.

METHODS: Consecutive patients were prospectively recruited for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to define right and left ventricular (RV, LV) fibrosis in addition to proven risk markers.

RESULTS: The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Of the 550 patients (median age 32 years, 56% male), 27 died (mean follow-up 6.4 ± 5.8; total 3,512 years). Mortality was independently predicted by RVLGE extent, presence of LVLGE, RV ejection fraction ≤47%, LV ejection fraction ≤55%, B-type natriuretic peptide ≥127 ng/L, peak exercise oxygen uptake (V02) ≤17 mL/kg per minute, prior sustained atrial arrhythmia, and age ≥50 years. The weighted scores for each of the preceding independent predictors differentiated a high-risk subgroup of patients with a 4.4%, annual risk of mortality (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.87; P < 0.001). The secondary endpoint (VA), a composite of life-threatening sustained ventricular tachycardia/resuscitated ventricular fibrillation/sudden cardiac death occurred in 29. Weighted scores that included several predictors of mortality and RV outflow tract akinetic length ≥55 mm and RV systolic pressure ≥47 mm Hg identified high-risk patients with a 3.7% annual risk of VA (AUC: 0.79; P < 0.001) RVLGE was heavily weighted in both risk scores caused by its strong relative prognostic value.

CONCLUSIONS: We present a score integrating multiple appropriately weighted risk factors to identify the subgroup of patients with rTOF who are at high annual risk of death who may benefit from targeted therapy.

PMID:34656466 | DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.07.026