Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and fatal disease associated with remodeling of the pulmonary artery. We previously reported that the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) is up-regulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and contributes to enhanced Ca2+ responses and excessive cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms underlying the up-regulation of CaSR have not yet been elucidated. We herein examined involvement of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on CaSR expression, Ca2+ responses, and proliferation in PASMCs. The expression of PDGF receptors was higher in PASMCs from patients with IPAH than in PASMCs from normal subjects. In addition, PDGF-induced activation of PDGF receptors and their downstream molecules [ERK1/2, p38, protein kinase B, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3] were sustained longer in PASMCs from patients with IPAH. The PDGF-induced CaSR up-regulation was attenuated by small interfering RNA knockdown of PDGF receptors and STAT1/3, and by the treatment with imatinib. In monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats, the up-regulation of CaSR was reduced by imatinib.
The combination of NPS2143 and imatinib additively inhibited the development of pulmonary hypertension. These results suggest that enhanced PDGF signaling is involved in CaSR up-regulation, leading to excessive PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in patients with IPAH. The linkage between CaSR and PDGF signals is a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to the development of PAH.-Yamamura, A., Nayeem, M. J., Al Mamun, A., Takahashi, R., Hayashi, H., Sato, M. Platelet-derived growth factor up-regulates Ca2+-sensing receptors in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.